Published in Climatic Change 73, 1-12, doi:10.1007/s10584-005-6952-6 in 2005
R. García-Herrera, G. P. Können, D. A. Wheeler, M. R. Prieto, P. D. Jones, and F. B. Koek
We have compiled a meteorological database over the world's oceans by digitizing data from European ship logbooks of voyages in the period 1750-1854. The observations are carefully reviewed and transformed into quantitative data. The chief contents of the database are wind direction and wind force information, from a period without standardized scales. It is found that the information content of these so-called non-instrumental data is much higher than previously believed. The 105-yr CLIWOC database extends existing meteorological world ocean databases like ICOADS back in time by a full century.