Novaya Zemlya Effect and Sunsets
Published in Appl. Opt. 42, 367-378, doi:10.1364/AO.42.000367 in 2003
Siebren Y. van der Werf, Günther P. Können, Waldemar H. Lehn
Systematics of the Novaya Zemlya (NZ) effect are discussed in the context of sunsets. We distinguish full mirages, exhibiting oscillatory light paths and their onsets, the subcritical mirages. Ray-tracing examples and sequences of solar images are shown. We discuss two historical observations by Fridtjof Nansen and by Vivian Fuchs, and we report a recent South Pole observation of the NZ effect for the Moon.